Phytorid Technology is a recycling technology of wastewater to reduce the water scarcity in the earth presently and for the rest of the decades. This technology holds the sustainability of water for the next generations. People have to save water. Somehow, still, they are wasting the humungous amount of water, be it intentionally or by mistake. Along with that, people are making the natural water bodies polluted through different activities; as a result, they will suffer from a lack of water in future. To deal with this situation, CSIR-NEERI produced an eco-friendly, economic, wetland technology called Phytorid Technology to make the water purified, decontaminated and likely to be reused.
This article will discuss Phytorid Technology in the context of the IAS Examination.
Phytorid Technology for Sewage Treatment
In rural and urban areas, sewage is generated in a huge quantity. A huge portion of this sewage remains untreated and is left in water bodies with a limited installed treatment capacity in centralised manners. The impact of sewage contamination on rivers and lakes is currently a threat.
It is necessary to stop the flow of untreated wastes from river basins to the rivers to revitalise the rivers and lakes. This technology is applicable for both industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater sewage treatment. Selecting technology for sewage treatment should be based on some criteria in order to make the method feasible. They are:
- We need plants that require minimum maintenance
- We need plants that do not require electricity
- The technology should be self-sustainable
- The technique should use both aerobic and anaerobic processes
These criteria have become more important in using the technology in rural areas due to low or lack of skilled manpower and challenges on electricity supplies or lack of electricity supplies in rural areas. This involves the use of natural methods, ways that are highly efficient and well-structured.
Phytorid is well patented both nationally and internationally. It is a unique technology based on the natural method of treatment of sewage using constructed wetlands that have been developed by the National Environmental Engineering Research Institution (NEERI). Natural wetland functioning has been used to scheme a technology where wetland plants and along with the working of their root system have been integrated to get at a designer ecosystem to get rid of water scarcity using this concept.
Phytorid Wastewater Treatment Technology
Phytorid is a subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW) system that has successfully proved itself in the field for more than six years of continuous operation and implementation as a stand-alone wastewater treatment technology. Built wetland system can also be used for the treatment of wastewater. It is a nature to nature (n2n) recycling process. This is a very effective, stand-alone alternative technology to be conventionally activated among many other sludge treatment plants.
Phytorid Technology Design
This process includes common grasses like Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Glyceria maxima, Typha, Scirpus, Cyprus, Canna etc. Porous media supports the root structure of emergent vegetation. The design of the Phytorid Technology states that the water level in the cells should remain below the top of the filter media. To ensure maximum efficiency in treating domestic wastes, various species of aquatic plants have been skillfully utilised. The process can be described in the following flow pattern:
Process: Sedimentation 🡪 Bacterial action 🡪 Filtration 🡪 Adsorption 🡪 Precipitation 🡪 Nutrient Uptake 🡪 Vegetation system
Advantages of Phytorid Technology
- It is a space-saving technology
- It is a decentralised technology
- It can provide habitats for many organisms
- Removes BOD (70-80%)
- Removes COD (60-75%)
- Total suspended solids removal (75-95%)
- Total nitrogen removal (60-70%)
- Facilitates phosphate removal (50-60%)
- It is involved in faecal coliform removal (85-95%)
- Easy maintenance
Disadvantages of Phytorid Technology
- As it is a natural process, non-biodegradable wastes cannot be decomposed by it.
- It can spread cholera, malaria, and dengue
- It can create an odour problem
Furthermore, candidates can learn more about the detailed UPSC Syllabus and exam pattern for the preliminary and mains phase of the examination in the linked article. Analysing the syllabus will help candidates accordingly schedule a study plan.
Aspirants who shall be appearing for the exam for the first time and are willing to get some preparation tips and study material for the competitive exams can turn to BYJU’S for assistance.
Frequently Asked Questions on Phytorid Technology
How does Phytorid Technology Works?
Phytorid technology works by forming highly settleable microbial aggregates and maintaining a high concentration of biomass.
What Are Biodegradable Waste?
Biodegradable wastes are organic wastes that include vegetables, fruits, dead bodies or body parts of animals, which can be decomposed by microorganisms.
What Are Non-biodegradable Waste?
Non-biodegradable wastes are inorganic wastes that include plastic, rubber, glass, E-wastes etc., which cannot be decomposed by microorganisms.